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Process schemes
Making a process schemes

Process schemes

Process schemes is a visual support with a scenario created to compensate missing inner scenario of a child with autism. We can use process schemes to support: self care,  hygiene, house work, food preparation, work skills. The aim of process schemes is achieving independence so the person does not rely on help of others. 

The aim of the process schemes is not detailed visualization of the process, but process schemes which maximize his/her independence in accomplishing the entire process.

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Additional Info

Goal:
Included in school/society, Pupil well-being, Cognitive accessibility, Independent/life skills, Academic skills, Social communication
Students age range:
3, 18
Curriculum area:
Not related
Year period:
Any moment
Step by step description, including actions to be developed for preparation and implementation:
The form of the process schemes is very individual and depends of the level of abstract thinking and generalization of the person. We can use: objects, photographs, pictures, pictures with supporting text, text. Preparation of process schemes: • Hands –simple, similar to children̕ s hands • Interesting toy, but not too much • Story • Interesting ending- motivation to finish the game • We focus on the area of self care , which we intend to improve Rules in making a process schemes: • Respecting actual level of play skills- process schemes has to meet child̕ s needs and respect his abilities • Process schemes is based on the individual interests and preferences of a child- using favourite activities, toys, topics etc. • Pace- slow, child needs appropriate time in order to follow the steps of the process schemes • Once a child is familiar with a process schemes- we can speed up the steps of the process schemes • Repetition of the steps of one task – we repeat each step in a longer period of time in order to differentiate it from the other steps • The aim of process schemes is achieving independence so the person does not rely on help of others (including independence from verbal instructions) • The aim of the process scheme is not detailed visualization of the process, but process scheme which maximize his/her independence in accomplishing the entire process. • When considering appropriate training method we need to reflect the main deficits characteristic for people with autism: o Problems with imitation – we use physical guidance (physical prompts) o Problems with social modelling – we use social demonstration together with a physical prompt in modelled situation, o Problem with sequence memory – we break a task into a sequence of simple steps o Problem with orientation and organization/ focusing on unimportant detail – we stress out (visualize) the important, egg: side of clothes o Problem with understanding of concept of the task – we use so called BACKWARDS CHAINING – meaning: we do as many last steps of the process, as the person is able to follow, in order to make the steps of the process clear. o When considering appropriate training method we need to reflect the main deficits characteristic for people with autism: o Problems with imitation – we use physical guidance (physical prompts) o Problems with social modelling – we use social demonstration together with a physical prompt in modelled situation, o Problem with sequence memory – we break a task into a sequence of simple steps o Problem with orientation and organization/ focusing on unimportant detail – we stress out (visualize) the important, egg: side of clothes o Problem with understanding of concept of the task – we use so called BACKWARDS CHAINING – meaning: we do as many last steps of the process, as the person is able to follow, in order to make the steps of the process clear. How to show a process schemes to a child: Step 1: introducing a process schemes • Child only watches each step of the process schemes • Our task: make sure a child pays attention to it Step 2: watching steps of process schemes and modelling in parallel • Child watches and an adult, who performs a task according to the process schemes Step 3: doing a task simultaneously with watching the process schemes • Child is actively involved into performing a task • Our task: adult uses physical prompts Step 4: playing process schemes independently • Gradually decreasing prompts and assistance to support independent work • Adult assists only to help a child to finish the task successfully Step 5:decreasing support of the process schemes • Gradually decreasing use of the schemes • The aim is to learn the skill to perform the task independently without any support; to generalize and use the skill in a practical situations It is very important to know that these steps can be freely rearranged, skipped or repeat. If it is necessary for maximum independence and spontaneous use by a person with autism The visual aids are not meant to be used permanently. If a child is able to do the task without visual support, we gradually stop using them. Also when we see that a child is able to do a certain step in the process without visual support, we take this step away from the process scheme.
Resources to be used, including human resources, materials and spaces:
The level of abstraction of the process scheme depends on the person, the process scheme is made for. It can use: words, photographs, pictures, objects. Technical equipment: • Video camera, camera, mobile phone, iPad, tablets, smartphone • Appropriate room • Material for schemes Human resources: • Students • Teachers • Other children Materials: • Interesting toy/ or all the materials to accomplish a new skill • Sounds • Technical equipment Space: • At the table • On the floor • In the natural environment/ kitchen, workshop, garden etc.
Difficulties found while implementing it:
Possible risks: • Individual and creative approach is necessary- we have to take into account individual needs of children- different level of functioning, understanding, their reactions, perception, motivation, … • This is a long-term continuous training –it is necessary to continuously invent and make new process schemes • Problems with generalization can occur - children can have difficulties with transition of the task to real life or repeat them when environment is changed. Possible setbacks: • Attention deficit • Diverting attention to something else • Uninteresting schemes • Child watches the schemes too many times- losing interest • Very simple game • Very challenging game • Computer problems
The official webpage for the good practice:
Please enter the URL for the good practice at your school or any other internet place. If you don’t have a specific URL for your practice, then enter the URL of your school.
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